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Pronouns

  • The whole world is centered around persons.  Persons need places and things to live.  Any acion is done by or done to people, places and things.  People, places and things are represented by Personal Pronouns.
  • A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
Pronouns

1. Personal Pronouns
    I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they are called Personal Pronouns, because they stand for persons.

I                            (1st person singular)
You                       (2nd person singular)
He                         (3rd person singular)
She                        (3rd person singular)
It                            (3rd person singular)

We                          (1st person plural)
You                         (1st person plural)
The                         (1st person plural)

1st Person                The Person speaking
2nd Person               The Person spoken to
3rd Person                The Person spoken of 

2. Impersonal Pronoun
  • Impersonal verb                 It rains                       
  •  When - self is added to my, your, him, her, it and - selves added to our, your, them we get the Compound Personal Pronouns.
3. Compound Pronouns

Myself      -      Ourselves
Yourself    -      Yourselves
Himself     -
Herself      -      Themselves 
Itself         -

4. Reflexive Pronouns
    These Compound Personal Pronouns become Reflexive Pronouns when the action done by the subject turns back (reflects) upon the subject.
  • He shot himself.
  • She blamed herself.

Myself                 Ourselves
Yourself               Yourselves
Himself
Herself                 Themselves
Itself

5. Emphatic Pronouns
    When the Compound Personal Pronouns are used for the sake of Emphasis they become Emphatic Pronouns.
  • You yourself can do it.

Myself                 Ourselves
Yourself               Yourselves
Himself
Herself                 Themselves
Itself

6. Demonstrative Pronouns
    If the Pronouns are used to point out the objects to which they refer, they are called Demonstrative Pronouns.
  • Both cars are good.  But this is better than that.

EXERCISE - I

Complete the sentences using this, that, these or those.
Example: I like this picture. (this, these)
  1. ___________shirt looks great.                                                        (That, Those)
  2. Look at___________man over there.                                              (this, that)
  3. ___________is a beautiful day today.                                              (That, This)
  4. Do you like___________flowers?                                                   (that, those)
  5. What are the answers to___________questions?                             (this, these)
  6. I love___________shoes but I don't like (7)___________shirt.       (these, that), (those, that)
  7. Let's watch a movies.  (8)___________a good idea.                         (This is, That's)
  8. Whose house is (9)___________?                                                   (those, that)
  9. This book isn,t very good, but (10)___________book's great.          (that, this)
Answers: 1. That  2. that  3. This  4. those  5. these  6. these  7. that  8. That's  9. that  10. that

EXERCISE - II

1. Hey, (1)___________hot dogs look good.
   Yes. I like (2)___________too.  Try some of (3)___________cakes as well, they're delicious.      
   OK.  And what's this?
   (4)___________'s chicken soup, it's really good too.  Eat up!

2. Do you like (5)___________sweater?
   Yea, (6)___________looks good.  I like this one as well.
   Oh yea, that looks great!  It goes well with (7)___________shorts.
   And these boots are cool as well.  Try them on!
   Oh yea.  I want the shorts, boots, and the sweater.  Let's buy them!

3. These pants are really big.
    Look at (8)___________pants.  They're so small!
    How about (9)___________shoes?
    Which shoes?
    Look, those.  (10)___________look really weird.

Answers: 1. these  2. them  3. those  4. That  5. this  6. that  7. these  8. these  9. those  10. They

7. Indefinite Pronouns
If the Pronouns do not refer to any person or thing in particular (they refer only in general) they are Indefinite Pronouns.
  • One must not praise oneself.

EXERCISE - I

Complete the sentences below with the correct indefinite pronoun.
Example: I have___________to go.
a) nowhere b) nobody - The answer is: a)nowhere-------

1.___________you can do, I can do better.                                                  a)Anybody    b)Anything

2.  I have___________important to tell you.                                                  a)somebody  b)something
 
3.  Can___________reliably predict an earthquake?                                       a)anyone       b)anywhere

4.  We're bored because there's___________to do.                                        a)anything    b)nothing

5.  I thought I had heard voices, but___________was there.                           a)nobody     b)somebody

6.  Here's 1000 rupees.  You can buy___________you want.                          a)anyone      b)anything

7.  We don't want___________telling us what we should do.                          a)anybody    b)nobody

8.  ___________tastes as good as Herbal Tea.  It's the best drink                   a)Anything   b)Nothing
     in the house! 
9.  No one is really sure how the universe and___________in it                      a)everything  b)nothing
     was created.  
10. Are you talking her___________special tonight, like an expensive             a)anywhere  b)everywhere
      restaurant?

Answers: 1. b   2. b   3. a   4. b   5. a   6. b   7. a   8. b   9. a   10. a

8. Distributive Pronouns
    These Pronouns which refer to persons or things one at a time are called Distributive Pronouns.
    They are: each, either and neither - They are always singular.
  • Each student gets a prize.
9. Reciprocal Pronouns
    Each other, one another.
  • They hate each other.
  • They love one another.
   These Compund Pronouns are called Reciprocal Pronouns.

10. Relative Pronouns
A Pronoun that refers or relates to some noun going before is called a Relative Pronoun.
  • Who, whose, whom, which, that, what
The noun that goes before a pronoun is called its Antecedent.
  • I met my aunt who has just returned from America.   Aunt - Antecedent;   who - Relative Pronoun
11. Compound Relative Pronoun
      Pronouns formed by adding ever, so or soever to who, which and what are called Compound            Relative Pronouns.
  • Whatsoever you do to the least of my brothers you do it to me.
12. Interrogative Pronouns
     The Relative Pronouns used for asking questions are called Interrogative Pronouns - who?, whom?, of whom?, whose?, which?, what?
  • Who are you?
  • Tell me hat you have done.
Next: The Verb





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