PhonemesPure Vowels - 12
1. i: as in see; sea, me, free, key, machine, bead, feel, feet, heat, leak, peel, beak, beat, bee, these,
cheese, speed, believe, field, police, canteen, seat, reason, feast, people, peace,
complex, deceive, perceive, siege, eat, easy, meet.
2. I as in sit; him, film, ink, village, bid, fill, hit, lick, pit, big, silk, because, neglect, reduce, beauty,
system, mystery, pity, baggage, private, babies, carried, cities, paties, busy, coffee,
money, carriage, bargain, build, foreign, credit, mercy.
3. e as in ten; head, get, said, friend, dead, set, bed, bell, bet, nest, belt, get, let, wet, met, feather,
ready, any, many, bury, leisure, men, every.
4. a: as in hat; cat, stamp, dad, sat, angle, flat, bad, lack, back, mat, man, cab, mad, badge, cap,
bat, batch, ass, ample, camp, bank.
5. æ as in arm; car, cart, art, hard, pas, aunt, clerk, flask, ask, fast, answer, dance, path, bath, bard,
heart, lark, par, calm, large, farm, bar, after, staff, palm, calf, drama, father.
6. ɒ as in got; not, jog, hop, gone, cough, sworn, hot, lock, pot, cot, box, dog, rod, borrow,
sorrow, sorry, because, knowledge.
7. ə: as in saw; score, four, door, board, pour, caught, court, horse, soar.
8. ʊ as in put; good, should, wood, wolf, full, look, book.
9. u: as in too; food, crude, do, move, group, fool, cool, hoot.
10. ʌ as in cup; double, monk, up, sun, blood, bud, hut, luck, sun, cut, bunch, pump, much, come,
son, among, month, country, enough, couple, young, does.
11. ɜ: as in fur; bird, word, heard, church, journey, furl, hurt, lurk.
12. ə as in ago; attack, maker, doctor, teacher, towards, about.
Diphthongs - 8
1. eI as in page; say, play, grey, day, pay, great, fail, hate, late, pay, age, cake, taste, pray, way,
may, clay, aim, pair, paint, wait, eight, weight, they, break, gate, pale, place.
2. aI as in five ; my, eye, bike, time, buy, either, bide, file, height, like, pie.
3. əI as in join ; toy, boiler, noise, boy, oil, employ, soil.
4. əʊ as in home; snow, go, alone, road, no, only, bode, foal, know.
5. aʊ as in now; how, found, cow, outside, sound, bowed, fowl, bout.
6. Iə as in near; beer, tier, here, period, dear, fear, ea.
7. eə as in hair; care, stair, air, fair, aeroplane.
8. ʊə as in pure; poor, tour, sure.
Consonants - 24
Unvoiced and Voiced Pairs - 11. p as in pen; pig, pencil, pardon, appoint, space, spirit, potato, simple, limp, loop, captain, cheap,
2. b as in bad; book, baby, big, rubber, sob, buy, robber, rib, obtain, object, submerge, submit.
3. t as in tea; taxi, table, take.
4. d as in did; dog, depend, date, leader, seed.
5. k as in cat; kick, cake, contact, kind, accord.
6. g as in got; get, great, glass, go, figure, twig.
7. ʧ as in chin; church, chat, chain, merchant, rich.
8. ʤ as in June; judge.
Unvoiced and Voiced Pairs -29. f as in fall; food, gift, fine, physics, laugh.
10. v as in voice; very, receive, vain, event, dove.
11. θ as in thin; throw, thumb, thick, method.
12. ð as in then; this there, though, leather, smooth.
13. s as in so; swim, sun, sigh, ice, escape.
14. z as in zoo; zero, zebra, lazy, noise.
15. ʃ as in she; sheep, shine, assure, shoe, station, mission.
16. ʒ as in vision; pleasure, leisure, measure, casual.
Other Consonants17. h as in how; height, hero, hotel, history.
18. m as in man; among, calm, meat, summer, climb, meet.
19. u as in no; not, annoy, nose, beginning, ton.
20. ŋ as in sing; bring, banged, singing, tongue, anger.
21. I as in leg; hallo, always, leap, living, love.
22. w as in wet; away, swim, when, twist, once.
23. r as in red; around, proud, write, river.
24. j as in yes; yellow, usual, stupid, mule.
Later added Phonemes1a. i as in happy - as in dubious
8a. u as in situation - as in stimulate
wə As a sequence Diphthong 9 - as in actual