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Noun

A Noun is a word used to denote a person, place or thing.
  • Vivek, Mumbai, Bible.
1.Proper Noun
   Name of a particular Person , Place or Thing.
  •    Ashoka was a great king.
             Ashoka - Proper Noun;    King - Common Noun.
The first letter of a proper noun is always a capital letter.

2.Common Noun
   Name given in common to every person or thing of the sme kind or class.
  •    Man, City, Table
a)Collective Noun
   Name of a number (or collection) of persons, or things - taken together and spoken of as one whole.
  •    The French army was defeated at Waterloo.
              An army - collection of soldiers.
  
b)Abstract Noun
   It is either name of a quality, action or a state.
  •    goodness, wisdom, bravery - Quality
  •    laughter, movement, hatred - Action
  •    childhood, slavery, poverty - State
   The names of Arts and Sciences are also Abstract Nouns.  Grammar, Dance, Physics.

   Abstrtact Nouns are formed from:
   1. Adjectives - goodness - from good.
   2. Verbs - growth - from grow.
   3. Common Nouns - Childhood - from Child.

Noun

NOUN:GENDER

i)Masculine Gender
   A Noun that denotes a male being is said to be of the Masculine Gender.
  • Boy, Man, Cock
   The Masculine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for strength & violence.
  • The sun sheds his light on rich and poor alike.
ii)Feminine Gender
   A Noun that denotes a female being is said to be of the Feminine Gender.
  • Girl, Woman, Hen
   The Feminine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for beauty, gentleness and gracefulness.
  • Spring has spread her green mantle over the earth.
iii)Common Gender
     A Noun that denotes either a male or a female being, is said to be of the Common Gender.
  • child, parent, friends, servant
     When objects without life are personified they are referred to as of masculine or feminine gender.

iv)Neuter Gender
    A Noun that denotes neither a male nor a female (i.e. without life) is said to be of the Neuter Gender.
  • book, pen, stone, tree
    Collective Nouns, even when they denote living beings, are considered as Neuter Gender.
    Young children and lower animals are also referred to as neuter gender.

NOUN:NUMBER

A Noun that denotes only one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number.
  • cow, bird, plate
A Noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to be in the Plural Number.
  • cows, birds, plates 
EXERCISE - I

Write the plural form of these nouns.
Example: tree - trees;  box - boxes;  man - men;

  1. bird________
  2. girl________
  3. house________
  4. tomato________
  5. fox________
  6. dress________
  7. child________
  8. woman________
  9. country________
  10. building________
Answers: 1. birds  2. girls  3. houses  4. tomatoes  5. foxes  6. dresses  7. children  8. women                 9. countries  10.  buildings

EXERCISE - II

Write the plural form of the nouns in brackets.
 Example: I have some oranges.  (orange)

  1. Do you like________? (cherry)
  2. Where are my________? (key)
  3. Tara goes to________at the weekend. (party)
  4. Don't play with________. (knife)
  5. Vijay has three________at home. (dog)
  6. He needs new_________. (shoe)
  7. One fish, two_________. (fish)
  8. Italy has beautiful________. (city)
  9. I like________they're really fun. (quiz)
  10. The________are finished. (question)

Answers: 1. cherries  2. keys  3. parties  4. knives  5. dogs  6. shoes  7.fish  8. cities  9. quizzes            10. questions

EXERCISE - III

Add 'there is' or 'there are' to the following sentences.
Example: There are many stars in the sky.
  1. _________a fly in my soup.                          (There is / There are)
  2. _________many parks in Bangalore.              (There is / There are)
  3. _________any tigers in Africa.                       (There isn't / There aren't)
  4. _________lot of hotels in big cities.                (There is / There are)
  5. _________a bank near here?                           (Is there / Are there)
  6. _________life on Mars?                                  (Is there / Are there)
  7. _________a telephone can I use?                     (Is there / Are there)
  8. _________a  football game tomorrow.              (There is / There are)
  9. _________eight students in my class.                (There is / There are)
  10. _________many people in my town.                  (There isn't / There aren't)
Answers: 1. There is  2. There are  3. There aren't  4. There are  5. Is there  6. Is there  7. Is there          8. There is  9. There are  10. There aren't

EXERCISE - IV

Arrange these words in order to form correct sentences.
Example: are many stars the sky in there - There are many stars in the sky.

  1. there's book a on desk my________
  2. are many trees there near house my.________
  3. there,s some food the fridge in._________
  4. ar 7.00 p.m. there's party a.________
  5. there are any hotels?__________
Answers: 1. There's a book on my desk.  2. There are many trees near my house.                                  3. There's some food in the fridge.  4. There's party at 7.00 p.m.  5. Are there any hotels?

NOUN:CASE

1.Nominative Case
   When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case.
   To find the Nominative Case - ask the question: Who? or What?
  • Narayanan threw the ball.
  • The donkey kicked the boy.
                                                 I                                                       We
                                                You                                                   You
                                                He
                                                She                                                    They
                                                It
You bought a book for me.   You - Nominative

2.Accusative Case
   When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the object of a verb, it is said to be in the objective (or Accusative) Case.  To find the Accusative Case - place 'Whom' or 'What' before the verb and its subject and raise the question.
  • Govindan bought a book for me.
         What did Govindan buy for me?    (Answer - a book)

   A noun which comes after a preposition is also said to be in the Accusative Case.
  • The bucket is in the room.
  A noun in the Nominative generally comes before the verb.
  • Govindan bought a book for me.
  A noun in the Accusative generally comes after the verb.
  • Govindan bought a book for me.
  They are distinguished by the order of words or by the sense.

                                                   Me                                                Us
                                                   You                                               You
                                                   Him
                                                   Her                                                Them
                                                   It
Ramesh writes a letter.   He writes it in English.

EXERCISE - I

Change the sentences using Object Pronouns.
Example: I like the teacher.                                           I like him.
  1. She calls Mary.                                                   She calls_________.
  2. You eat breakfast with Shankar.                           You eat breakfast with_________.
  3. We don't like fast food.                                       We don't like_________.
  4. I miss my family.                                                 I miss_________.
  5. He wants the book.                                              He wants_________.
  6. Max likes David and me.                                      Max likes_________.
  7. We give present to Mum at Diwali.                        We give present to_________.
  8. I want to see the movie.                                        I want to see_________.
  9. We love to meet Peter and Julie.                            We love to meet_________.
  10. I want to talk to Paul.                                            I want to talk to_________.
Answers: 1. her  2. him  3. it  4. them  5. it  6. us  7. her  8. it  9. them  10. him

EXERCISE - II

Change the sentences using Object Pronouns.
Example: I like music.                                                    I like it.
  1.  I believe Ajay.                                                     I believe_________.
  2. We study English.                                                We study_________in the morning.
  3. The teacher teaches the students.                          He teaches_________maths.
  4. Ranjini calls me.                                                   She calls_________.
  5. She is my favorite singer.                                      I really like_________.
  6. I like to talk to Chandar.                                        I like to talk to_________.
  7. They like sports.                                                   The play_________every day.
  8. The bookstore is next to the bank.                         The bookstore is next to________.
  9. Wow!  I really like this scarf.                                  I want to buy________.
  10. Dad wants to talk to to you and Maya.                   He wants to talk to_________.
Answers: 1. him  2. it  3. them  4. me  5. her  6. him  7. them  8. it  9. it  10. you

3.Instrumental Case

                                                   By me                                      With me
                                                   By you                                     With you
                                                   By him                                     With him
                                                   By her                                      With her
                                                   By it                                         With it
                                                   By us                                       With us
                                                   By you                                     With you
                                                   By them                                   With them
  • Ganesh will go to Madurai with us.
  • A goat is cut by you.
4.Dative Case

                                                   To me                                       For me
                                                   To you                                      For You
                                                   To him                                      For him
                                                   To her                                       For her
                                                   To it                                          For it
                                                   To us                                         For us
                                                   To you                                       For you
                                                   To them                                     For them
 When a noun is the Indirect Object of a verb, it is said to be in the Dative Case.
  •  My father gave to me his motor bike.
  •  Your mother bought for you a nice dress.
5.Ablative Case

                                                  From me                                    From us
                                                  From you                                   From you
                                                  From him
                                                  From her                                    From them
                                                  From it
What did you get from her?

6.Genetive - Possessive Case

                                                 My, Mine                                   Our, Ours
                                                 Your, Yours                                Your, Yours
                                                 His
                                                 Her, Hers                                    Their, Theirs
                                                 Its
When anoun (or pronoun) is expressed as possessing or owning something, it is said to be in the Possessive (or Genitive) Case.
  • That vehicle is yours.
  • That is your vehicle.
The Possessive Case is also used to denote Authorship, Origin, Kind etc.

         Milton's Paradise Lost.         (Written by Milton)
         Siva's Temple.                      (Temple dedicated to Siva)
         Marbles of Rajastan.             (Marbles found in Rajastan)
         Solomon's Temple.               (Temple built by Solomon)
         Anna's Speech.                     (Speech delivered by Anna)
         A mother's love.                    (Love felt by the mother)

EXERCISE - I

Make the possessive form of the nouns given.
Example: My brother's house is in London. (brother)
  1. My_________shirt is purple. (friend)
  2. The_________books are on the desk. (girls)
  3. It's_________birthday on Monday. (John)
  4. Do you have_________newspaper? (today)
  5. The_________bags are in the bedroom. (children)
  6. My_________office is next to mine. (boss)
  7. Your uncle is your_________brother. (father)
  8. Your aunt is you_________sister. (mother)
  9. My_________birthdays are next month. (friends)
  10. A_________tail is long. (monkey)
Answers: 1. friend's  2. girls'  3. John's  4. today's  5. children's  6. boss's  7. father's  8. mother's          9. frieends'  10. monkey's

EXERCISE - II

Add the correct possessive adjective or pronoun.
Example: I have a pencil, it's my pencil. It's mine.

  1. She has a book, it's (1)_________book.  It's (2)_________.
  2. You have an umbrella, it's (3)_________umbrella.  It's (4)_________.
  3. They have some magazines, they're (5)_________magazines.  They're (6)_________.
  4. Here is Vikram's house.  It's (7)_________house.
  5. There are Arul and Tina's bags.  They're (8)_________bags.
  6. I have a puppy.  It's (9)_________.
  7. Abishek's brother has a new apartment.  Ir's (10)_________.
Answers: 1. her  2. hers  3. your  4. yours  5. their  6. theirs  7. his  8. their  9. mine  10. his

7.Locative Case

                                                 in me                                             with me
                                                 in you                                            with you
                                                 in him                                            with him
                                                 in her                                             with her
                                                 in it                                                with it
                                                 in us                                               with us
                                                 in you                                             with you
                                                 in them                                           with them
  • Geetha has no trust in us.
  • Is there a story book with you?
8.Vocative Case
   When a noun is used to name or address a person or thing, it is said to be in the Vocative Case.
  • Aruna, come here.
  • Jumbo, go there.
9.In Apposition
  When a noun follows another to describe it, the noun that follows is said to be in apposition to the noun  which comes before it.
  • Venkatesh, our leader, is very studious. 

          



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