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Auxiliaries

  • To answer the questions on Completing the Dialoge with Modal Auxiliaries, Comprehension of a Dialogue or completion of a Dialogue, one must know how to use the Modal Auxiliaries correctly.
  • An auxiliary is a 'helping verb'.  It is used to form another verb.
  • The following are the auxiliaries or anomalous or special verbs:  be, have, do, can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought, used, need and dare.                                                            
 EXERCISE - I

Example: Sony__________. (to read a book)
Answer : Spny is reading a boook.
  1. Udhaya__________. (to watch a film)
  2. We__________. (to buy a new house)
  3. They__________. (to play chess)
  4. Peter__________. (to feed his dog)
  5. Mary__________. (to wash her hair)
  6. Muthu and Manohar__________. (to help their father)
  7. You__________. (to learn the poem)
  8. Poongodi__________. (to draw a picture)
  9. Mala and Kala__________. (to sing a song)
  10. I__________. (to talk to John)
Answers:
  1. Udhaya is watching a film.
  2. We are buying a new house.
  3. They are playing chess.
  4. Peter is feeding his dog.
  5. Mary is washing her hair.
  6. Muthu and Manohar are helping their father.
  7. You are learning the poem.
  8. Poongodi is drawing a picture.
  9. Mala and Kala are singing a song.
  10. I am talking to John.
EXERCISE - II

Finish the sentences like in the example.  USe the long form of the auxiliary.
Example: Jothi__________. (to read a book)
Answer : Jothi is reading a book.
  1. Arun__________. (to amke muffins)
  2. You__________. (to cut the grass)
  3. Simon__________. (to write a letter)
  4. We__________. (to swap things)
  5. Komala__________. (to sang with Babu)
  6. Jai and Joe__________. (to save money for a book)
  7. I__________. (to run home)
  8. My mother__________. (to take a shower)
  9. Deva__________. (to swim in the lake)
  10. The teacher__________. (to ride the bike)
Answers:
  1. Arun is making muffins.
  2. You are cutting the grass.
  3. Simon is writing a letter.
  4. We are swpping things.
  5. Komala is dancing with Babu.
  6. Jai and Joe are saving money for a book.
  7. I am running home.
  8. My mother is taking a shower.
  9. Deva is swimming in the lake.
  10. The teacher is riding the bike.
Modal Auxiliaries or Modals are:
can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought, used, need and dare.

  • And these modals are also termed as Defective Verbs because some parts are wanting in them.  They do not have the 's' in the third person singular, they do not have infinitive and the 'ing' forms.
Auxiliaries

 1. Be (be, am, are, is, was, were, will be, have been, had been

    will have been)     

The auxiliary be is used:
  i)  In the formation of the Continuous Tenses:
  •       I am studying.  He is working.
 ii)  In the formation of the Passive:
  •       The cat was killed by the dog.
iii)  If it is followed by an infinitive, it indicates a plan or a command.
  •       He is to see me tomorrow.
  •       You are to write your name at the top of the answer paper.
iv)  Be is used in the past tense with the oerfect infinitive to indicate an arrangement made but not carried
      out.
  •       They were to have gone for a picnic last week but had to postpone that until next month.

2. Have (have, has, have been, has been, had been,.....)

The auxiliary is have is used:
  i) In the formation of the perfect tenses:
  •      He has written.  I have been working.
 ii) With the infinitive to indicate obligation:
  •      I have to reach there by noon.

3. Do (do, does, did) 

The auxiliary do is used:

  i) To fom the negative and interrogative of the simple present and simple past:
  •      He doesn't study.  Does he study?
  •      I did not work.  Did I work?
 ii) To avoid repetition of a previous verb:
  •      Do you know them? Yes, I do.
  •      She eats vegetarian meals and so do you.
iii) To emphasize the affirmative nature of a statement:
  •      You do look healthy.
  •      He was told not to go, but he did go.
iv) To make a request or invitation more persuasive:
  •      Please do come.
  •      Do behave well.

4. Can, Could, May, Might

  1. I can study
  2. You can study
  3. He can study
  4. She can study
  5. It can study
  6. We can study
  7. You can study
  8. They can study
  9. I may study
  10. You may study  
  11. He may study 
  12. She may study  
  13. It may study 
  14. We may study  
  15. You may study 
  16. They may study  
The auxiliary Can is used:
  i) To express ability or capacity:
  •      I can swim for two hours.  (Ability)
  •      He can speak English, but he cannot write it very well.
  •      Can you lift this box?
 ii) The axiliary May is used to express permission:
iii) In spoken English Can often replaces May: (Can is less formal than May)
  •      You may / can take leave.  (Permission)
  •      May / Can I borrow your vehicle?
  •      May / Can I smoke here?
iv) Can not denotes impossibility:
  •      He cannot pass.  (Impossibility)
 v) May not denotes impossibility:
  •      He may not pass.  (Impossibility)
vi) In formal English, May is used to express a wish:
  •      May you live long.  May God bless you.
vii) Could and Might are used as the past equivalent of can and may.
  •       I could swim across the river when I was young.  (Ability)
  •       He said I might / could go.  (Permission)
  •       He thought I might be at home.  (Possibility)
ix) Could is used as a polite form of request:
  •      Could you give me your pen for a minute?
 x) Might is also used to express a degree of dissatisfaction or reproach:
  •      You might pay a little more attention in my class.

5. Shall, Should, Will, Would

  i) Shall is used in the Second and Third Persons to express a command, a promise or threat:
  •      He shall not smoke again.  (Command)
  •      You shall have a picnic next week.  (Promise)
  •      He shall pay a fine for this.  (Threat)
 ii) Shall is used in the second and third persons to find the wish of the person addressed:
  •      Shall I open the window?
  •      Which pen shall I bring?
iii) Will is used to express willingness, promise or determination
  •      I will carry your bag.  (Willingness)
  •      I will do better next time.  (Promise)
  •      I will pass this year.  (Determination)
Will is used to express a characteristic habit or an assumption or a probability:
  • He will talk only about films.  (Habit)
  • This will be the chair you are looking for.  (Assumption)
  • That will be the milk man.  (Probability)
iv) Will you? Indicates an invitation or a request.
  •      Will you have tea?
 v) Should is used in all persons to express duty or obligation.
  •      You should obey your Captain.
  •      We should be punctual always.
  •      He could stop drinking.
vi) In conditional clauses 'should' is used to express a supposition that may not be true:
  •      If it should rain, we will not have class.
vii) Should is used as the polite form of want:
  •       I should like you to marry her.
viii) Would is used as the polite form of will
  •        Would you give a helping hand?

6. Must

Must expresses Necessity or Obligation or a Fixed Determination.
  • We must obey the rules.  (Obligation)
  • You must bring me a leave letter.  
  • One must work hard to succeed.  (Necessity)
  • The train must be late.  
  • I must get 100 marks.  (Determination)

7. Ought to

  1. I must study / ought to study 
  2. You must study / ought to study 
  3. He must study / ought to study  
  4. She must study / ought to study 
  5. It must study / ought to study  
  6. We must study / ought to study 
  7. You must study / ought to study  
  8. They must study / ought to study 
Ought expresses moral obligation or desirability or a strong probability.
  • Children ought to look after their parents when they become old.  (Obligation)
  • You ought to study better.  (Desirability, Necessity)
  • The drama ought to be a great success.  (Probability)

8. Used to

Used to is used to express a discontinued habit ( a past habit)
  • I used to play there.
  • Kishore used to smoke before he developed a lung problem.

9. Need

Need denotes necessity or obligation
  • I need to see the dentist.  (Necessity)
  • You needn't pay the fees now.  (Negation of obligation)

10. Dare

Dare (to be brave enough) is used in negative or interrogative sentences.
  • How dare you question me?
  • He doesn't dare to see me.
  • I dare not cut classes.

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